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United States of America

Additional Information

6. DARPA's Dog's Nose Demonstration Site, Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri


Description and layout drawing of the demonstration site


Darpa's Dog's Nose Demonstration Site, Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri


The site comprises 22 acres with 13 acres of usable space inside the inner most fence.

A 30’ x 30’ building is available at the site. Inside the building is a 15’x15’ office space that is heated and cooled. Currently, power is supplied by a large diesel generator. The generator will serve as backup power once the landline power has been installed (expected late 1998). There is a calibration area containing five copies of each mine type that is buried in the testing area. Prototype sensors that visit the site are encouraged to visit the mines in the calibration area to ensure the proper functioning of their sensor before testing in the blind areas. The type of mine, burial depth, and location are all provided to users in the calibration area.

 

UXO and land mines known to be buried at the site.


Target Size Description Burial Depth*
PMA-1A Mine 14cm x 7cm

x 3cm

200g wax covered block of TNT main charge. Plastic case. An aluminum tube was added to simulate the metal content of the firing mechanism that was removed. 2 cm
PMA-2 Mine 7cm diameter x 2.7cm height 100g TNT main charge. Plastic case. An aluminum tube was added to simulate the metal content of the firing mechanism that was removed. 4 cm
TMA-5 Mine 32cm x 28cm x 9.5cm Plastic cased AT mine 5.5 kg of TNT main charge. An aluminum tube was added to simulate the metal content of the firing mechanism that was removed. 8 cm
TMM-1 Mine 33cm diameter x 9cm height Metal cased AT mine, 5.6 kg TNT main charge. 6 cm
SIMRDX Mine 7cm diameter x 3cm height This is a simulated mine. Screw top plastic case that contains 50g of RDX crystals.  

*Burial depth is to top of the mine and measurements are approximately.

Topographical and geological description of the demonstration site.

The site consists of a flat area that 20 years ago was prepared for use as a C-130 aircraft landing strip. The site was leveled for such use: no gravel or other foreign material was brought to the site and the airstrip as far as is known was never used. The site has been used as a "drop zone" and a number of empty smoke grenades were found on the site. There are a few slopes and gullies on the site, but for the most part the site is flat with grassy vegetation. A complete topology has been done for the whole site at approximate 1.0 meter spacing. If necessary, a much finer topology will be done in the immediate 3 meter x 3 meter area centered around each buried mine. Soil properties have been measured and are provided in the Tables 1 and 2. Soil density measurements were taken before and after mine burial and at regular intervals thereafter. A number of empty holes were prepared and measured for comparison.

The water table height was determined to assure that a rising water table will not submerge any of the buried mines. An analysis of maps of the area has revealed that the water table is over 100 feet beneath the site and is therefore not an issue.

Table 1. Ft Leonard Wood Soil Characterization

Site

P

Moisture @ 1/3 bar %*

Moisture @ 15 bar %

Organic Carbon %

CEC Total meq/100g

Iron-Ferrous, Exchange

ableppm

Total Kieldahl Nitrogen, mg/kg

1

6.1

34.9

16.2

0.61

8.4

124

29.7

2

6.0

31.7

16.2

0.78

12.0

145

31.4

3

5.8

29.8

12.1

0.61

10.2

156

27.8

4

6.0

30.7

16.9

0.84

12.6

173

30.9

5

5.7

28.4

12.7

0.58

13.1

141

30.8

6

6.0

28.9

12.4

0.74

12.0

159

34.7

7

5.9

31.1

16.1

0.79

10.8

161

32.7

8

6.4

34.5

18.2

0.81

13.5

137

29.8

9

6.1

31.9

17.1

0.64

12.2

163

32.7

* Field capacity: water that the soil will hold after being saturated and allowed to drain under the tension of the dry soil below.


Table 2. Ft Leonard Wood Soil Characterization: Particle Size Distribution


Site

Hydrometer*

Sieve Analysis**

Classification

% Clay

<0.002 mm

% Silt

0.002 - 0.050 mm

% Sand

>0.050 mm

% Fines

<0.075 mm

% Sand

0.75-4.975 mm

% Gravel

>4.975 mm

1

32.5

52.5

15

86.3

13.2

0.5

CL (sandy clay)
2

17.5

55.0

27.5

89.0

11.0

0.0

CL (clay)
3

7.5

25.0

67.5

42.2

42.7

15.0

SC (gravelly clayey sand)
4

22.5

47.5

30.0

85.5

13.5

1.0

CL (sandy clay)
5

37.5

47.5

15.0

86.2

10.5

3.3

CL (clay)
6

12.5

30.0

57.5

71.1

18.7

10.1

CL (sandy clay)
7

15.0

22.5

62.5

84.9

13.2

1.8

CL (sandy clay)
8

15.0

30.0

55.0

85.9

12.3

1.8

CL (sandy clay)
9

15.0

32.5

52.5

81.8

15.7

2.5

CL (sandy clay)
* Day as modified by Patrick: Day, P. R. (1956), "Report of the committee on physical analyses, 1954-1955," Soil Science Society of America, Proceedings, 20, 167-169 and Patrick, W. H., Jr. (1958), "Modification of method of particle size analysis," Soil Science Society of America, Proceedings, 22, 332-336.

** Standard sieve method and U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. (1960), "The unified soil classification system," Technical Memorandum No. 3-357, Appendices A and B, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS

Vegetation description of the site

The site is almost exclusively covered with typical varieties of Midwestern prairie grasses. Variations in types and thicknesses follow the broad contours and areas of the site that had been laid out for specific purposes (runway, apron), but evince no major visible distinctions in vegetation across the whole site. The types and locations of plants in the mine lanes were recorded prior to burial of landmines. After burial the effect on nearby vegetation will be noted on a regular basis and will be supported by photographs, if needed. Mowing of the area will be done to maintain vegetation essentially below knee high. Vegetation will be freshly cut prior to use of the site by sensor developers.

 

Equipment / instrumentation and data available for use at the site

To support the analysis of testing results, geophysical data was and is being collected at the site to include:

  • standard meteorological data
  • wind velocity (at 35cm, 50cm, and 4m)
  • mine and soil temperatures (soil at 3, 6, and 12cm, mines on the bottom of the mine, and soil temperature next to the mine under the root mat)
  • pan evaporation
  • extensive analysis of soil properties (to include in situ density)
  • vegetation characterization
  • site topology

Hourly averages of meteorological data are continuously collected (averages or accumulations stored every 30 minutes) to include: precipitation, humidity, barometric pressure, solar radiation, pan evaporation, snow height, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. Wind speed and direction are measured at 4 heights: 35cm, 50cm, 1m and 4m. In addition, wind speed and direction are stored every 5 minutes during the noon hour to capture the turbulent changes during the most turbulent portion of the day. In addition soil moisture measurements are collected twice a week.

Thermistors were placed on the landmines buried in the calibration area to record the target temperature fluctuations every 30 minutes.

List describing the normal users of the site(s)

Any DARPA funded system developer can visit the calibration area at anytime; the only restrictions imposed will be due to considerations for safety and mine lane integrity.

Security considerations to be addressed in planning use of the site

As well as being located in the heart of Ft. Leonard Wood, an active military base, the area that contains mine lanes is surrounded by lighted double chain link fences separated by 15 feet. The inner fence is protected by an intrusion detection system that alarms when the fence is touched. Both fences have razor wire on the top. The facility is lighted at night. The building at the site is also alarmed with touch and motion sensors, similar to the fence. A risk assessment for site use is maintained at Fort Leonard Wood.

Site specific issues

Any DARPA funded system developer can visit the calibration area at anytime. The only restrictions imposed will be due to considerations for safety and mine lane integrity. To schedule a visit of the mine lane contact Vivian George at least 5 weeks in advance of the desired visit date. Other users will only be granted access to the site if such access is determined to be in DARPA’s best interest, in other words a promising chemical detector system.

The DARPA mine detection facility is funded through the UXO Detection Program. DARPA will fund facility maintenance costs through the year 2001. When the DARPA program is complete the site will be turned over to Fort Leonard Wood and all site access requests at that point in time will be handled through the Maneuver Support Battle Lab.

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